ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases

आई सी एम आर - राष्ट्रीय कॉलरा और आंत्र रोग संस्थान

Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India
स्वास्थ्य अनुसंधान विभाग, स्वास्थ्य और परिवार कल्याण मंत्रालय, भारत सरकार
WHO Collaborating Centre For Research and Training On Diarrhoeal Diseases

NICED : Scientists

Dr. M. K. Saha

Dr. Malay Kumar Saha

Dr. M K Saha has been working as Scientist at the ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (ICMR-NICED) in Kolkata since 1989. Dr. Saha did Graduation (1978), Masters (1980) and Ph D (1988) from Kalyani University. In ICMR-NICED, he worked in Immunology till 1992, and thereafter working in Virology Division. Additionally, since 2007, working in the newly created Clinical Laboratory for vaccine and drug trial. Dr. Saha worked on environmental Vibrio cholerae, Hepatitis viruses and HIV.

Dr. Saha with his untiring efforts developed state of art Immunology as well as Molecular HIV Reference Lab . Dr. Saha is In-charge of the National HIV Reference Lab which is a NABL accredited and this lab was adjudicated as the best National Reference Lab in the country by CDC-WHO-NACO team evaluation in the year 2008. The HIV reference lab has currently been recognized by WHO as Global Prequalification Evaluation Lab (PEL) for HIV diagnostics. Dr. Saha, has created NACO-Regional Institute (East) for HIV Sentinel Surveillance and serving as Focal Person.

Dr. Saha has the of honor and distinction of serving as (i) Temporary Advisor, WHO (Measles Aerosol Vaccine Project); (ii) Member, National Working Group for HIV Surveillance and Estimation; (iii) Member, Sectional Committee, Immuno-Biological Diagnostic Kits, Bureau of Indian Standards, Govt of India; (iv) Member, Technical Resource Group, Laboratory Service, NACO, Govt of India; (v) Member, Expert Committee, Immuno and Molecular-diagnostic Labs, National Institute of Biologicals, Govt of India.

Dr M K Saha is recepientof National Scholarship (Govt of India), CSIR Research fellowship (NET, 1st batch), JICA Counter-Part Trainee in Molecular Virology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan. He has published more than 60 research articles.

General Information
Name Dr. Malay Kumar Saha
Designation Scientist-F. In-charge- National HIV Reference Laboratory
Division Virology
Specialization HIV/AIDS, Evaluation of Immuno-Diagnostic Assay. Laboratory Quality Control/Quality Assurance. Development of Nano Particle for Oral Vaccine Delivery. Clinical Trial for Drug and Vaccine.
Date of joining ICMR 22nd August 1989
Date of joining present post 01st September 2015
Discipline: Virology
Email : sahamk@yahoo.com , sahamk@icmr.org.in
Academic Qualification  
Graduation: . Sc. (Hons) 1978
Post-Graduation: M. Sc. 1980
Doctoral: Ph. D. 1988


Research Experience

Since 1982.
Aquatic Toxicology: Petroleum for doctoral degree from Kalyani University.
Studied environmental Vibriosand then Viral Hepatitis briefly after joining at ICMR-NICED.During 2000-01 studied Molecular Virology at National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo as JICA counterpart trainee.

More than 25 years' experience inHIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and Nano-materialresearch:

  • Molecular and Immuno diagnostics.
  • HIV Sentinel Surveillance: Dynamics of HIV epidemic in East and N-Eastern India.
  • Molecular studies for HIV drug resistance mutations
  • Concurrent Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus infection with HIV
  • Development of Carbohydrate nano-materials for protein/vaccine delivery
  • Enzyme activity and stability enhancement using Graphene oxide nano support.

Experience on drug and vaccine trials on human subjects:

  • Measles aerosol vaccine, phase-1 trial (WHO)
  • OralPolio and RotavirusVaccines underperformance. (Gates Foundation).
  • Safety and efficacy of Prulifloxacin for travellerís diarrhoea, phase-3 trial(OPTIMAR Pharmaceuticals, Texas University Health Sciences Centre).


Research Interests

Research interests are mainly focussed on generating crucial evidences targeted for public health benefits deliverable in resource limited settingsrelated to HIV and other viruses withsimilar route of infection.

  • Dry blood sample for qualitative and quantitative molecular HIV assaySimple and affordable point of care immuno-diagnostics for viral infection.
  • Uncertainty of measurement for diagnostics.
  • HIV drug resistance mutations on different anti-retroviral treatment regimen.
  • Correlates of HIVamong high risk population.
  • Drivers of HIV epidemic in high prevalence pockets in East and N-Eastern India.
  • Molecular diversity of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus.

Projects (as Principal Investigator)


  1. External Quality Assurance for HIV testing. 2002-continuing.
  2. HIV Sentinel Surveillance. 2008-continuing
  3. Evaluation of diagnostic kits for HIV, HBV and HCV. 2010-continuing.
  4. Molecular detection of HIV in infants and children under age of 18 months. 2010-Continuing.
  5. Molecular assay for HIV-1 Plasma Viral Load. 2015-Continuing.
  6. Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance for HIV. 2013-14
  7. Utility of prevention of mother-to- child HIV transmission program data for HIV surveillance. 2013-16.
  8. Molecular diversity of HIV and drug resistance mutations among infant using dried blood sample. 2015-17.
  9. Impact evaluation of Antiretroviral therapy underNational AIDS Control Programme in India (ART-IE, India) 2018-20
  10. Molecular diversity of Hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care hospital of Manipur, India.2018-21.


  1. Molecular Characterization of HIV for transmitted drug resistance mutations.2013-17
  2. Molecular characterization of HIV for drug resistance mutations among adults in Kolkata, India. 2018-20

Students (presently working in the lab)

Research Scientist


  1. Dr Avishek De, DPH MD
  2. Dr Kaustav Chatterjee. MBBS
  3. Dr Nibedita Pal MBBS
  4. Dr Sandipta Chakrabarty MBBS MPH
  5. Dr Sujay Ghosh MBBS
  6. Dr.Sanchita Mahapatra, MD PhD
  7. Dr Mallika Ghosh MD
  8. Dr SusmitaMaity PhD


  1. Dr.Subrata BiswasM Tech, Ph D
  2. Dr.Nalok DuttaPh D
  3. Ms Srijita Nandi M Sc
  4. Dr.Poulami Mukherjee MD
  5. Dr.Mihir Bhatta Ph D
  6. Dr.Gautam Ghosh Ph D


Awards / Honours

  • National Scholarship Government of India.
  • Research Fellowship (CSIR, NET) JRF & SRF.
  • GCP & GCLP Recognition by WHO for Clinical Trials.
  • NABL Accreditation as per ISO-15189:2012 standard.
  • WHO & CDC adjudicated the National HIV Reference Laboratory, NICED, as the highest ranking in the country with >90% scoring (GoldMedal Laboratory).
  • Certificate of Excellence for Outstanding Performance of Molecular HIV Lab, NICED, in Proficiency Testing using Dry Blood Samplefrom Molecular Monitoring Team, Global HIV/AIDS Division, CDC, USA.
  • Certificate of Outstanding Performance from NACO, Govt of India, for Quality Assurance in HIV testing and achieving highest International Standard as per ISO: 15189. 


  • Life Member, Indian Public Health Association
  • Life Member, Indian Science Congress Association

Recognition/Contribution in public health program

  • Temporary Advisor, WHO, Measles Aerosol Project.
  • Member, Sectional Committee-Biological and Clinical Evaluation of Medical Devices and Immuno-Biological Diagnostic Kits.Bureau of Indian Standards, Govt of India.
  • Member, Expert Committee, Strengthening of Quality Control Testing Procedure of ImmunoDiagnostic Kit Laboratory, National Institute of Biologicals, Govt of India.
  • Member, Technical Resource Group, Laboratory Services, NACO, Govt of India.
  • Member, Technical Expert Committee for strengthening of scientific activities of Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, National Institute of Biologicals, Govt of India.
  • Vice-Chancellor's nominee, Selection Committee for Promotion under Career Advancement Scheme for Assistant & Associate Professor, Jadavpur University.
  • Resource Person, Performance evaluation,Orientation Program. UGC-Human Resource Development Centre, Jadavpur University.
  • Expert, Assessment of Molecular HIV Labs, National AIDS Control Program. NACO.
  • Member, National Working Group, HIV estimation, NACO, N-Delhi.
  • External Expert, Biosafety Committee, National Institute of Bio-Medical Genomics, DBT, Govt of India, Kalyani.



  1. Biswas S, Ghosh P ,Chakraborty D, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Saha MK.COVID-19 Infection:Data Gaps for Diagnostic Laboratory Preparedness and Tasks on Hand. Viral Immunol.2020:1-7..
  2. Bhatta M, Dutta N, Nandi S,Dutta S, Saha M K. Mother-to-child HIV transmission and its correlates in India: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.2020 Sep ;20(1):509.
  3. Bhatta M, Nandi S, Dutta N, Dutta S, Saha M K. 2020. HIV care among elderly population: Systematic review and Meta-analysis. AIDS Res Human Retroviruses 36 (6), 475-489.. Pubmed
  4. Sinha A, Goswami D N, Haldar D, Choudhury K B, Saha M K, Dutta S. 2020. Sociobehavioural matrix and knowledge, attitude and practises regarding HIV/AIDS among female sex workers in an international border area of West Bengal, India. J Family Med Primary Care 9 (3), 1728. Pubmed
  5. Chakraborty D, Debnath F, Biswas S, Bhatta M, Ganguly S, Deb AK, Saha MK, Dutta S. Exploring Repurposing Potential of Existing Drugs in the Management of COVID-19 Epidemic : A Critical Review. J Clin Med Res. 2020; 12(8):463-471.
  6. Sahu D, Kumar P, Chandra N, Rajan S, Shukla DK, Venkatesh S, Nair S, Kumar A, Singh J, Reddy S, Godbole S, Elangovan A, Saha MK, Rai S, Lakshmi P, Gambhir T, Ammassari S, Joshi D, Das A, Bakshi P, Chakraborty S, Palkar A, Singh SK, Reddy D, Kant S, Pandey A, Vardhana Rao MV. Findings from the 2017 HIV estimation round & trend analysis of key indicators 2010-2017: Evidence for prioritising HIV/AIDS programme in India. IJMR.2020; 151(6):562-570.
  7. Biswas S, Chakraborty D, Ghosh P, Kumar P, Adhikary R, Saha MK. 2020. HIV Risk profile and its socio-demographic correlates among long-distance truckers in West Bengal, India: Evidence from national HIV sentinel surveillance 2017. Indian J Public Health. 64 (Supplement):S8-S14.   Pubmed
  8. Biswas S, Sinha A, Rajan S, Khan PK, Joshi DS, Saha MK. 2020. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and high-risk behavior of home-based and nonhome-based female sex workers in three high-prevalent North-Eastern States of India. Indian J Public Health. 64(Supplement):S46-S52    Pubmed
  9. Biswas S, Ghosh P, Chakraborty D, Kumar A, Aggarwal S, Saha MK.2020. Variation in injecting drug use behavior across different North-eastern States in India. Indian J Public Health. 64(Supplement):S71-S75.  Pubmed
  10. Ghosh GK, Biswas S, Ghosh P, Ganguly S, Saha MK. 2020. Motivation for adherence to antiretroviral therapy by transgender people living with hiv - A study in West Bengal, India. Indian J Public Health. 64(Supplement):S79-S82.    Pubmed


  1. Dutta N, Saha M K. 2019. Nanoparticle-induced enzyme pretreatment method for increased glucose production from lignocellulosic biomass under cold conditions. J Sci Food Agric.99(2):767-780.   Pubmed


  1. Dutta N, Saha M K. 2018. Immobilization of a Mesophilic Lipase on Graphene Oxide: Stability, Activity, and Reusability Insights. Methods Enzymol. 609:247-272.   Pubmed
  2. Dutta N, Omesh S, Nandi S, Saha M K. 2018. Virologic failure on anti-retroviral therapy without HIV drug resistance mutation. J Immune DisordTher.2: 1-5.


  1. Dutta N, Nandi S, Guha S K, Saha M K. 2017. Emergence of HIV drug-resistant mutations in east Indian population after failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy. HIV AIDS Rev 16(4): 258-264.
  2. Dutta N, Biswas S, Saha M K. 2017. Nano-magnesium aided activity enhancement and biophysical characterization of a psychrophilic α-amylase immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport. J Biosci Bioeng 124(1):15-22.  Pubmed


  1. Dutta N, Biswas S, Saha M K. 2016. Biophysical characterization and activity analysis of nano-magnesium supplemented cellulase obtained from a psychrobacterium following graphene oxide immobilization. Enzyme Microb Technol. 95:248-258.  Pubmed
  2. Aryaa B K., Das Bhattacharyaa S, Sutcliffeb C G, Saha M K, Bhattacharyy S, Niyogi S K, Mossb W J, Panda S, Das R S, Mallick M, Mandalda S. 2016. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses catch up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in older HIV-infected Indian children. Vaccine 34 (19): 2267-2274.   Pubmed
  3. Debnath A, Mandal M, Choudhuri S, Saha M K and Guha S K. 2016. Baseline Levels of Interleukine-6, Tumor-Necrosis Factor-Alpha and C-Reactive Protein in Treatment Naive -Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients-A Study from a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Eastern India. Curr Biomarkers 6(2):124-132


  1. Biswas S, Saha M K. 2015. Uncertainty of Measurement for ELISA in a Serological Testing Laboratory. Immunochem Immunopathol: Open Access 1:109.
  2. Ghosh M, Nandi, S Dutta S, Saha M K. 2015. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A systematic Review. World J Hepatol. 7(23):2482-2491. Pubmed
  3. Saha MK, Mahapatra T, Biswas S, Ghosh P, Kire M. 2015 Burden and Correlates of HIV Risk among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nagaland, India: Analysis of Sentinel Surveillance Data. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0117385. Pubmed
  4. Mahapatra T, Biswas S, Nandi S, Ghosh P, Ghosh M, Mondal S, Saha MK. Burden and Correlates of HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in West Bengal, India: Analysis of Sentinel Surveillance Data.PLoS One. 2015 10(5):e0127232. Pubmed
  5. Saha M K, Mahapatra T, Biswas S, Ghosh P, Mahapatra, Deb A. K., Diwan K. Sociobehavioral Correlates of HIV Risk among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chhattisgarh, India: Analysis of Sentinel Surveillance Data. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 2015. 68 (1), 38-44, 2015. Pubmed
  6. Panda S, Bandopadhyaya D, Saha M K, Pahari S, Chakrabarti S, Niyogi S. Correlates of HIV transmission from husband to wife among heterosexual married couples in ATR in West Bengal, India. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015. 6: 417
  7. Biswas S, Chattopadhyay M, Sen K K, Saha M K. Development and characterisation of alginate coated low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles as new carriers for oral vaccine delivery in mice. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2015. 121, 403-410. Pubmed


  1. Nandi S, Maity S, Bhunia S C, Saha M K. Comparative assessment of commercial ELISA kits for detection of HIV in India. BMC Res Notes. 2014. 7:436. Pubmed
  2. Biswas S, Chattopadhyay M, Sen K K, Saha M K, H S Majhi. Structure-toxicity relationship of chemically modified chitosan as an oral protein drug delivery carrier. J. Pharm. Sci. Pharmacol.2014.1, 1-10.
  3. Chatterjee S. Nandi S, Ghosh M. Saha M K. Diagnosing the Infected Child: The Indian Context. 2014.The Positive Child Has a Right to a Positive Life: Action Report on Pediatric HIV in INDIA. Monograph, Section 3.2. Abbott
  4. Biswas S, Sen K K, Roy D, Saha M K. Chitosan-based particulate system for oral vaccine delivery: A review. Int J Pharm. 2014. 4(1): 226-236.
  5. Bhattacharya M K, Saha M K, Chakraborty P S, Sinha A, Bhattacharya A, Dutta K K. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal: An observation. J Acute Dis. 2014. 163-164.
  6. Biswas S, Sen K K, Saha M K, Roy D. Development and characterization of o-methylated free n, n, n-trimethylated chitosan nanoparticles as new carriers for oral vaccine delivery in mice. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2014. 4:01-13.1


  1. Maity S, Nandi S, Biswas, S Sadhukhan S, Saha M K. 2012. Performance and diagnostic usefulness of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid kits for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in India. Virol J., 9: 290 Pubmed
  2. Maity S, Nandi S, Biswas, S, Saha M K. 2012. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroprevalence among Patients Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in West Bengal, India. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.,. 65: 424-426 Pubmed


  1. Maity S, Bhunia S C, Biswas S, Saha M K. 2011 Syphilis seroprevalence among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in West Bengal, India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 64: 505-508 Pubmed
  2. Biswas S, Lala D, Teixeira da Silva J A , Sen K K, Saha M K. 2011 Development and Evaluation of Colonic Drug Delivery of Aceclofenac using Pectin and Guar Gum. Int J Biomed Pharmaceut Sci. 5: 79-84.


  1. Deb A K, M Deb, Saha M K , S Chakraborty, S K Bhattacharya, Detels R 2009 HIV transmission potential among local and migrant factory workers in Kolkata, India. AIDS Behav.13: 928-938. Pubmed


  1. Mullick, R., S. Sengupta, K. Sarkar, M. K. Saha, S. Chakrabarti. Phylogenetic analysis of env, gag and tat genes of HIV type 1 detected among the injecting drug users in West Bengal, India. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006.  Dec. 22(12): 1293-9.
  2. Sarkar, K., B. Bal, R. Mukherjee, M. K. Saha, S. Chakraborty, S. K. Niyogi, S. K. Bhattacharya. Young age is a risk factor for HIV among female sex workers-an experience from India. J. Infect. 2006 Oct. 53(4): 255-9. Epub 2005 Dec 27.
  3. Sarkar, K., B. Bal, R. Mukherjee, S. Chakraborty, S. K. Niyogi, M. K. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya. Epidemic of HIV coupled with hepatitis C virus among injecting drug users of Himalayan West Bengal, Eastern India, Bordering Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Subst Use Misuse. 2006. 41(3): 341-52.


  1. Gangopadhyay, D. N., M. Chanda, K. Sarkar, S. K. Niyogi, S. Chakraborty, M. K. Saha, B. Manna, S. Jana, P. Ray, S. K. Bhattacharya, R. Detels. Evaluation of sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus intervention programs for sex workers in Calcutta, India. Sex Transm Dis. 2005.  Nov. 32(11): 680-4.
  2. Sarkar, K., B. Bal, R. Mukherjee, S. K. Niyogi, M. K. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya. Epidemiology of HIV infection among brothel-based sex workers in Kolkata, India. J. Health Popul Nutr. 2005. Sep. 23(3): 231-5.
  3. Sarkar, K., B. Bal, R. Mukherjee, S. K. Niyogi, M. K. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya. Cross border HIV epidemic among injecting drug users of Himalayan West Bengal. Eur J. Epidemiol. 2005. 20(4): 373-4. No abstract available.


  1. Sarkar, K., D. N. Ganguly, B. Bal, M. K. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya. Hepatitis B infection, Eastern India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004. Jul. 10(7): 1341-2. No abstract available.


  1. Panda, S., L. Bijaya, Devi N. Sadhana, E. Foley, A. Chatterjee, D. Banerjee, T. N. Naik, M. K. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya.Interface between drug use and sex work in Manipur. Natl Med J. India. 2001. Jul-Aug.14(4): 209-11.


  1. Saha, M. K., S. Chakrabarti, S. Panda, T. N. Naik, B. Manna, A. Chatterjee, R. Detels, S. K. Bhattacharya. Prevalence of HCV HBV infection amongst HIV seropositive intravenous drug users their non-injecting wives in Manipur, India. Indian J. Med Res. 2000. Feb. 111: 37-9.


  1. Saha, M. K., P. Dutta, S. P. De. Possibility of public health hazards by contamination of toxin producing Vibrio cholerae through fishes reared in sewage fed fishery. Indian J. Public Health. 1999.Apr-Jun. 43(2): 71-2.


  1. Panda, S., A. Chatterjee, S. Bhattacharjee, B. Ray, M. K. Saha, S. K. Bhattacharya. HIV, hepatitis B and sexual practices in the street-recruited injecting drug users of Calcutta: risk perception versus observed risks. Int J. STD AIDS. 1998. Apr. 9(4): 214-8.


  1. Saha M K; Bhattacharya SK; Chowdhury AK. 1996. Hepatitis-E: a serious health menace and major killer in late pregnancy. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci. 50: 121-7.


  1. Chaudhuri, P. P., K. Sengupta, B. Manna, M. K. Saha, S. C. Pal, P. Das. Detection of specific anti-Giardia antibodies in the serodiagnosis of symptomatic giardiasis. J. Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1992. Sep. 10(3): 151-5.


  1. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1990. Chronic effects of mixture of crude petroleum and emulsifier on aquatic ecosystem. Environ Ecol. 8: 664-667.


  1. Chattopadhyay D N, Saha M K, Konar S K. 1987. Some bio-ecological studies of the River Ganga in relation to water pollution. Environ Ecol. 5: 494-500.
  2. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1987. Chronic sublethal effects of mixture of crude petroleum and emulsifier on fish. Environ Ecol. 5: 223-229.


  1. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1986. Chronic effects of crude petroleum on aquatic ecosystem. Environ Ecol. 4:506-510.
  2. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1986. Chronic sublethal effects of crude petroleum on fish. Environ Ecol. 4: 494-499..


  1. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1985. Impact of petroleum oil refinery effluent on Hooghly Estuary ecosystem at Haldia, West Bengal. Environ Ecol. 3: 524-529.


  1. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1984. Sub lethal effects of effluent of petroleum refinery on fish. Environ Ecol. 2: 262-265.


  1. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1983. Acute toxicity of some petroleum pollutants to plankton and fish. Environ Ecol. 1: 117-119.

  2. Saha M K, Konar S K. 1983.Toxicity of petroleum products on plankton, worm and fish. Environ Ecol. 1: 61-62

Book Chapters

  1. Mukherjee S, Dutta S, Verma A S, Saha M K. Nanoparticle synthesis harnessing benign green routes. Verma A S, Singh A (ed) Animal Biotechnology: Model in Discovery and Translation, 2020. 689-708.
  2.  Verma A S, Kumar V, Saha M K, Dutta S, Singh A. HIV: Biology to treatment. Saxena S K and Paul Khurana S M (ed). NanoBioMedicine: 2020, pages 167-197. Springer Nature.
  3.  Dutta N, Saha M K. Functionalized Graphene Nanomaterials as Biocatalysts: Recent Developments and Future Prospects. In Sulaiman Wadi Harun (ed.) Handbook of Graphene: Volume 7, (301-324) c 2019 Scrivener Publishing LLC.

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